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GUIDELINES This site allows non-lexicographers to aid the specialists in elaborating the history of English words and names.

Non-lexicographers provide the raw data and why the example may be relevant: words with links to the AALT with the apparent relevant entry in the OED [www.oed.com], along with as much more information as they are willing to give. The necessary elements are WORD, DATE, QUOTATION, OED entry referenced and relation to that entry, DOCUMENT link, county margination, and series. You may include also the Middle English form or Anglo-Norman form if you want. This entry is just raw data and NOT a statement that the word is properly identified.

TEMPLATE (In edit mode, copy and paste the template; delete elements not included, write over necessary elements):

Bugle (OED bugle, MED bugle, AND bugle): 1318. KB27. Surrey. tria cornua, que vocantur bugles. Early use by OED, could be French. [1]

Lexicographers and similar specialists may assess the raw data using the format of bullet points beneath the raw data entry. The raw data may be added to or edited, but not completely removed. Raw data that was misidentified should remain to assist others who want to enter data. The lexicographical assessment bullets should confirm the identification or supply a different identification and indicate whether the word is too common (“No more needed”), only earlier examples are desirable (“Only earlier needed”) or any further examples are desirable (“More needed”). If the material is carried over to a dictionary, that should likewise be indicated. Disagreement with the assessment can be indicated in a second bullet etc.


  • Proper identification. More needed.

You are encouraged to provide more information from the Middle English Dictionary [2], the Anglo-Norman Dictionary [www.anglo-norman.net], P.H. Reaney and R.M. Wilson, A Dictionary of English Surnames ed. 3 (1991), G. Fransson, Middle English Surnames of Occupation 1100-1350 (1935), or B. Thuresson, Middle English Occupational Terms (1950).


Packer: 1344. Lincolnshire. Rogerum de Garmeleston packer. OED has earliest 1450. [3] rcp

Packesadel: 1347. Huntingdonshire. bona et catalla sua videlicet unum packesadel. OED has earliest 1398. [4] rcp 02/12

Palfreyour: 1319. Willelmus Thequenesmaisterpalfryour. Not found in OED, although palfrey and palfreyman are. [5]; palfreur: Walterum le Palfreur: [6]

Panetrie: 1319. Willelmum de la Panetrie de Bannebury. OED has earliest 1325. [7]

Parchmyner: 1322. Oxfordshire. William Frere de Oxon' parchemyner [8] SJ ; 1344. Oxfordshire. Roberto Prentys de Bannebury parchemyner. OED does not have. [9]; 1345. Suffolk. quendam Johannem vocatum Jolyfe Jacke parchemyner. [10] rcp 03/12

Partlett: 1530. Kent. unun collitegium muliebre vocatum a partlette de panno vocato sypers circumposito cum diversis margaritis. OED has earliest 1515 and 1528. [11] rcp 02/12

Patynmaker: 1463. Norfolk. Henricum Baxter ...patynmaker. [12] rcp 02/12

Peleter: 1319. Willelmus le Peleter. OED has earliest 1332. [13]

Pelter: 1319. Johannem le Pelter. OED had earliest 1332. [14]

Penderere: 1345. Rogerus atte Brome de Loundres, penderere. Not found in OED. [15] rcp 03/12

Pewterer: 1350. ad respondendum Ricardo de Wycheford peauterer. OED first use is 1348. [16]. rcp/02.2012

Pichermaker: 1345. Cornwall. Stephanus Pichemaker (from later stage: Pichermaker) de Bodminia. OED does not have; only earlier example of "pitcher" is from 1300. [17], [18] rcp 03/12

Pykeman: 1347. Essex. Johannem Pykeman et Willelmum Pykard. OED has only a single reference, in 1259. [19] rcp 02/12

Pyketstafe: 1345. Bedfordshire. cum quodam baculo vocato piketstafe. OED does not have "pikestaff" before sixteenth century. [20] 1345. Northamptonshire. de quodam baculo ferro picato vocato pykedstaf. [21] rcp 03/12

Plough chaynes:" 1530. Middlesex. tres cathenas de ferre vocatas plough chaynes. OED has earliest 1641. [22] rcp 02/12

Ploumbour: 1347. Devon. Ricardum le Lange ploumbour. OED has earliest 1385. [23] rcp 03/12

Pollax (OED poleaxe): 1319. KB27. Yorkshire. cum quadam hachea vocata pollax percussit. 1347. Kent. cum quodam armo vocato pollex. [24]. OED has earliest 1355 [25]

Polre: 1227. Ralph del Polre adjudged of murder in the 100 of Eastry, Kent. There were a number of variant spellings of this name, but one that occurs most frequently in the late 13th/14th centuries is Poldre.[26]

Porpeys: 1347. Somerset. quemdam piscem vocatum porpeys. OED has a couple earlier references, but unclear, as here, if Anglo-Norman or English. [27] rcp 03/12

Pounced: 1531. London. a rounde hope of golde pounced with perlez. OED has one earlier reference in 1410. [28] rcp 02/12

Puke: 1463. Lincolnshire. unum parre caligarum de nigro colore vocato puke. OED has earliest, as color, in 1510. [29] rcp

Pulter: 1346. Cambridgeshire. Johannes de Bernewell pulter. OED has earliest 1474. [30] rcp 04/12

Pultry ware: 1530. London. pro omnimodis pultrye ware. OED has earliest 1531-2. [31] rcp 02/12

Pykoys: 1319. unum malleum ferreum, unum gaveloke, sex canillos (?), et unum pykoys, et alia bona et catalla. OED: earliest 1256 (a pick) [32]

Pynder: 1319. Alanum Pynder. OED has earliest 1218; 1319 would be second. [33]